WHAT IS POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE?
Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands or bars, typically referred to as tendons. Post-tensioning applications include office and apartment buildings, parking structures, slabs-on-ground, bridges, sports stadiums, rock and soil anchors, and water-tanks. In many cases, posttensioning allows
construction that would otherwise be impossible due to either site constraints
or architectural requirements.
Although post-tensioning systems require specialized
knowledge and expertise to fabricate, assemble and install, the concept is easy
to explain. Imagine a series of wooden blocks with holes drilled through them,
into which a rubber band is threaded. If
one holds the ends of the rubber band, the blocks will sag. Post-tensioning can be demonstrated by
placing wing nuts on either end of the rubber band and winding the rubber band
so that the blocks are pushed tightly together.
If one holds the wing nuts after winding, the blocks will remain
straight. The tightened rubber band is
comparable to a post-tensioning tendon that has been stretched by hydraulic
jacks and is held in place by wedge-type anchoring devices.
To fully appreciate the benefits of post-tensioning, it is helpful to know a
little bit about concrete. Concrete is
very strong in compression but weak in tension, i.e. it will crack when forces
act to pull it apart. In conventional
concrete construction, if a load such as the cars in a parking garage is
applied to a slab or beam, the beam will tend to deflect or sag. This deflection will cause the bottom of the
beam to elongate slightly. Even a slight
elongation is usually enough to cause cracking.
Steel reinforcing bars (“rebar”) are typically embedded in the concrete
as tensile reinforcement to limit the crack widths. Rebar is what is called
“passive” reinforcement however; it does not carry any force until the concrete
has already deflected enough to crack.
Post-tensioning tendons, on the other hand, are considered “active”
reinforcing. Because it is prestressed,
the steel is effective as reinforcement even though the concrete may not be
cracked. Post-tensioned structures can
be designed to have minimal deflection and cracking, even under full load.
There are post-tensioning applications in almost all facets
of construction. In building
construction, post-tensioning allows longer clear spans, thinner slabs, fewer
beams and more slender, dramatic elements.
Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required. In addition, it means a lower overall
building height for the same floor-to-floor height. Posttensioning can thus allow a significant
reduction in building weight versus a conventional concrete building with the
same number of floors. This reduces the
foundation load and can be a major advantage in seismic areas. A lower building height can also translate to
considerable savings in mechanical systems and façade costs. Another advantage of post-tensioning is that
beams and slabs can be continuous,
i.e. a single beam can run continuously from one end of the
building to the other. Structurally,
this is much more efficient than having a beam that just goes from one column
to the next.
Post-tensioning is the system of choice for parking
structures since it allows a high degree of flexibility in the column layout,
span lengths and ramp configurations.
Post-tensioned parking garages can be either stand-alone structures or
one or more floors in an office or residential building. In areas where there are expansive clays or
soils with low bearing capacity, post-tensioned slabs-on-ground and mat
foundations reduce problems with cracking and differential settlement. Post-tensioning allows bridges to be built to
very demanding geometry requirements, including complex curves, variable
superelevation and significant grade changes. Post-tensioning also allows
extremely long span bridges to be constructed without the use of temporary
intermediate supports. This minimizes the
impact on the environment and avoids disruption to water or road traffic
below. In stadiums, post-tensioning
allows long clear spans and very creative architecture. Post-tensioned rock and soil anchors are used
in tunneling and slope stabilization and as tie-backs for excavations. Post-tensioning can also be used to produce
virtually crack-free concrete for water-tanks.
A post-tensioning "tendon" is defined as a
complete assembly consisting of the anchorages, the prestressing strand or bar,
the sheathing or duct and any grout or corrosion-inhibiting coating (grease)
surrounding the prestressing steel. There are two main types of posttensioning:
unbonded and bonded (grouted). An
unbonded tendon is one in which the prestressing steel is not actually bonded
to the concrete that surrounds it except at the anchorages. The most common unbonded
systems are monostrand (single strand) tendons, which are
used in slabs and beams for buildings, parking structures
and slabs-on-ground. A monostrand tendon
consists of a seven-wire strand that is coated with a corrosion-inhibiting
grease and encased in an extruded plastic protective sheathing. The anchorage consists of an iron casting and
a conical, two-piece wedge which grips the strand. In bonded systems, two or
more strands are inserted into a
metal or plastic duct that is embedded in the
concrete. The strands are stressed with
a large, multi-strand jack and anchored in a common anchorage device. The duct is then filled with a cementitious
grout that provides corrosion protection to the strand and bonds the tendon to
the concrete surrounding the duct.
Bonded systems are more commonly used in bridges, both in the
superstructure (the roadway) and in cable-stayed bridges, the cable-stays. In buildings, they are typically only used
in heavily loaded beams such as transfer girders and landscaped plaza decks
where the large number of strands required makes them more economical.
Rock and soil anchors are also bonded systems but the
construction sequence is somewhat different.
Typically, a cased hole is drilled into the side of the excavation, the
hillside or the tunnel wall. A tendon is
inserted into the casing and then the casing is grouted. Once the grout has reached sufficient
strength, the tendon is stressed. In
slope and tunnel wall stabilization, the anchors hold loose soil and rock
together; in excavations they hold the wood lagging and steel piles in place.
There are several critical elements in a post-tensioning
system. In unbonded construction, the
plastic sheathing acts as a bond breaker between the concrete and the
prestressing strands. It also provides protection against damage by mechanical
handling and serves as a barrier that prevents moisture and chemicals from
reaching the strand. The strand coating
material reduces friction between the strand and the sheathing and provides
additional corrosion protection. Anchorages are another critical element, particularly in unbonded systems. After the concrete has cured and obtained the
necessary strength, the wedges are inserted inside the anchor casting and the
strand is stressed. When the jack
releases the strand, the strand retracts slightly and pulls the wedges into the
anchor. This creates a tight lock on the
strand. The wedges thus maintain the applied force in the tendon and transfer
it to the surrounding concrete. In
corrosive environments, the anchorages and exposed strand tails are usually
covered with a housing and cap for added protection.
In building and slab-on-ground construction, unbonded
tendons are typically prefabricated at a plant and delivered to the
construction site, ready to install. The
tendons are laid out in the forms in accordance with installation drawings that
indicate how they are to be spaced, what their profile (height above the form)
should be, and where they are to be stressed. After the concrete is placed and
has reached its required strength, usually between 3000 and 3500 psi (“pounds
per square inch”), the tendons are stressed and anchored. The tendons, like rubber bands, want to
return to their original length but are prevented from doing so by the
anchorages. The fact the tendons are kept in a permanently stressed (elongated)
state causes a compressive force to act on the concrete. The compression that
results from the posttensioning counteracts the tensile forces created by
subsequent applied loading (cars, people, the weight of the beam itself when
the shoring is removed). This significantly increases the load-carrying
capacity of the concrete.
Since post-tensioned concrete is cast in place at the job
site, there is almost no limit to the shapes that can be formed. Curved
facades, arches and complicated slab edge layouts are often a trademark of
post-tensioned concrete structures. Post-tensioning has been used to advantage
in a number of very aesthetically designed bridges.
ENSURING QUALITY CONSTRUCTION
The amount of post-tensioning strand sold has almost
doubled in the last ten years and the post-tensioning industry is continuing to
grow rapidly. To ensure quality
construction, the Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) has implemented both a
Plant Certification Program and a Field Personnel
Certification Training Course. By
specifying that the plant and the installers be PTI certified, engineers can
ensure the level of quality that the owner will expect. PTI also publishes technical documents and
reference manuals covering various aspects of post-tensioned design and
To find out more about post-tensioning,
contact the Post-Tensioning Institute or visit their website at: